The crisis has also witnessed the burgeoning of self-organised, community-based responses. These include actions by charitable and other civic associations seeking to counteract the effects of the crisis on those most affected, as well as actions by firms and business in support of suppliers, competitors and other businesses in the surrounding economy. Many, if not most of these actions, occur independently of policy responses and actions. However, consideration could be given as to how policy might act to strengthen the capacity for self-organising community-based responses to shocks and crisis. One area of interest may be the role of alternative currencies, which evidence from Switzerland suggests could act as a viable counter-shock mechanism for maintaining economic activity33.