Cities and regions are shapers and not merely containers of economic agents and their activity . To promote resilience, it is essential to tackle the specific challenges facing particular places. Local conditions tend to be most fully understood by sub-national policy actors. This highlights the importance of place-based actions. But, resilience is a shared responsibility. Actions that integrate national and sub-national approaches are to be preferred over those that focus exclusively on one or the other.
The experience of sub-national authorities during shocks and crises, and in the time leading up to it, demonstrates the limitations of local-actions. The ability to mobilise finances and resources are greater at the national level, particularly when not all places are experiencing the economic shock to the same extent. Resilience is strengthened where risks can be shared across territories.
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