Common oxygen, O(1s) binding energies:
Many (pure) oxide samples exhibit a secondary structure to higher binding energy of the main lattice oxygen peak. Careful consideration of the sample history can aid in the identification of this peak. Commonly, this may be ascribed to surface hydroxyl (OH) groups or even defects in the metal oxide lattice. Inspection of the C(1s) spectrum also aids identification of the possibility of surface carbonate (C(1s) ~ 289 – 290 eV).
Metal Oxide (M-O bonds): 529 – 530 eV
Metal Carbonates: 531 – 532 eV
Silica, SiO2: 532.9 eV
Alumina, Al2O3: 531.1 eV
Carbonyl, Organic C=O bonds: 532 – 533 eV
C-O organic bonds: 531.5 – 532 eV